India, with the world’s largest population and diverse ecosystems, faces various risks, such as rising temperatures, irregular rainfall patterns, and prolonged droughts.
Extreme river floods are projected to impact an additional 13 to 34 million people in India by the 2040s.
In comparison, coastal flooding is expected to affect an additional 5 to 18 million people by the 2070s in the country until the end of the century.
Climate Change Analysis in India
In the Global Climate Risk Index, 2021 places India among the top ten countries most affected by climate change in terms of fatalities and economic losses.
India is witnessing an annual average loss of US $87 billion due to the impacts of extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones, floods, and drought.
Additionally, heat stress affects approximately half of the 1.2 billion people who depend on agriculture. Temperature increases and droughts in agriculturally significant regions can also lead to a 1.8% GDP loss by mid-century.
By 2030, experts estimate an agricultural loss of US $7 billion in India due to droughts. Moreover, nearly 250 million people living along the coastline face susceptibility to sea-level rise, cyclones, and tidal surges.
Consequently, India’s carbon emissions are increasing rapidly owing to its large population, rapid urbanization, and industrialization. The country globally accounts for 7.1% of CO2 emissions (kt) and 1.8 metric tons per capita.
Moreover, India’s carbon emissions stem from electricity and heat production, agriculture, transportation, industry, and agricultural practices.
India commits to cut GDP emission intensity by 33-35% by 2030 from 2005 levels. Moreover, a National Action Plan promotes climate change initiatives in line with development objectives.